The brain and spinal column combined to called Central Nervous System (CNS). All vital functions, including thought, speech, and body movements are controlled. When a tumor occurs in the CNS, it affects a person's thought processes or movements. A Brain Tumor starts when normal cells in the brain change and grow uncontrollably, forming a mass.
The growth of a tumor usually take place space within the skull and affects normal brain activity. It can cause damage by increasing pressure in the brain, by pushing the brain against the skull. It cause damage to nerves and healthy brain tissue. Although brain tumors rarely spread to other parts of the body, most of them can spread through the brain tissue.
Symptoms of Brain Tumors
Brain tumor symptoms depend upon the location of a brain tumor. This is because different functions are controlled by different parts of the brain. The following are the common symptoms of brain,
- Headaches - 1 in 3 people with a brain tumour first go to their doctor with severe headaches
- Seizures - Fits are one of the most common symptoms of brain tumours. About 1 in 4 people with a brain tumour have fits when they first go to their doctor
- Trouble speaking or/and change of mood such as depression, or /and change in personality - These problems are happening because brain tumor affected in location where the above functions are controlled.
- Weakness or paralysis of part of the body
- Changes in vision, hearing, or other sensations - This is particularly important if your sight seems to be failing and glasses are not helping. Other problems include blurred vision, floating shapes, tunnel vision, or a loss of vision that comes and goes.
Types of Brain Tumor
There are more than 120 types of brain tumors. Today, most medical institutions use the World Health Organization (WHO) classification system to identify brain tumors
Brain tumors can be Benign or Malignant Tumor.
Benign brain tumors do not contain cancer cells. It Can be removed, and they seldom grow back. The border or edge of a benign brain tumor can be clearly seen. Cells from benign tumors do not invade tissues around them or spread to other parts of the body. However, benign tumors can press on sensitive areas of the brain and cause serious health problems. Unlike benign tumors in most other parts of the body, benign brain tumors are sometimes life threatening. Very rarely, a benign brain tumor may become malignant.
Malignant brain tumors contain cancer cells. Malignant brain tumors are generally more serious and often is life threatening. They are likely to grow rapidly and crowd or invade the surrounding healthy brain tissue. Very rarely, cancer cells may break away from a malignant brain tumor and spread to other parts of the brain, to the spinal cord, or even to other parts of the body. The spread of cancer is called metastasis.
Sometimes, a malignant tumor does not extend into healthy tissue. The tumor may be contained within a layer of tissue. Or the bones of the skull or another structure in the head may confine it. This kind of tumor is called encapsulated.
Treatment for brain tumors depends on a number of factors including the type, location and size of the tumor as well as the patient's age and general health. Treatment methods and schedules differ for children and adults.
1) Brain Surgery
Brain surgery is the usual treatment for most brain tumors. In order to remove a brain tumor, a neurosurgeon carry out craniotomy, this is done by making an opening in the skull. Whenever possible, the surgeon attempts to remove the entire tumor. If the tumor cannot be completely removed without damaging vital brain tissue, your doctor may remove as much of the tumor as possible. Partial removal helps to relieve symptoms by reducing pressure on the brain and reduces the amount of tumor to be treated by radiation therapy or chemotherapy.
2) Radiation Therapy
Radiation therapy or radiotherapy is the use of high-powered rays to remove damage cancer cells and stop them from growing. Radiation therapy also is used when surgery is not possible.
Chemotherapy is the use of drugs to kill cancer cells. The doctor may use just one drug or a combination, usually giving the drugs orally or by injection into a blood vessel or muscle. Intrathecal chemotherapy involves injecting the drugs into the cerebrospinal fluid.
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